Welcome to the Hippyland Tour. Here you can learn more about Hippies, where they live, what they do and how they think! There’s a little hippie in all of us…
By Gordon Kennedy & Kody Ryan
Wandervogels Abschied by Fidus, 1900
According to Webster’s dictionary (2003) a hippie or hippy is: a young person of the 1960’s who rejected established social mores, advocated spontaneity, free expression of love and the expansion of consciousness, often wore long hair and unconventional clothes, and used psychedelic drugs.
This mass-media definition of the 1960’s dropouts has eclipsed all pre-1960’s uses of the actual word such as that mentioned by Malcolm X in his famous autobiography. As a 17 year-old hustler living in Harlem in 1939 Malcolm noticed, A few of the white men around Harlem, younger ones whom we called hippies, acted more Negro than Negroes. This particular one talked more hip than we did. He would have fought anyone who suggested he felt any race difference.
This echoes the familiar sentiments of Jack Kerouac from On The Road (1955): I walked with every muscle aching among the lights of 27th and Welton in the Denver colored section, wishing I were a Negro, feeling that the best the white world had offered was not enough ecstasy for me, not enough life, joy, kicks, darkness, music, not enough night.
Clearly the actual word hippie was a form of Ebonics (black slang) from Harlem that passed it’s way through the beat era into the 1960’s, until Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle used it enough times by late 1965 to describe the young arrivals in their city…that the national media soon swallowed it whole and patented it.
But apart from the slick zoot suit clad white Negroes of 1930’s Harlem there actually were long-haired bearded individuals during this same era who wore sandals or bare feet and usually tended to favor mild subtropical places like southern California and Florida where they could forage their meals from the fruit trees that were so plentiful then.
Wandervogel print from the local group in Darmstadt, 1911
Nature Boys as they were later called were without exception either German immigrants or American youths whose lives were influenced by transplanted Germans that spread their Lebensreform (life-reform) message to anyone ready for a radical departure from the accepted boundaries of 20th century civilization.
Modern primitives, naturmensch, wandervogel, bohemians, reformers, wayfarers, and vagabonds are all expressions that evoke a tone of something wholly apart from the orthodox.
So why Germany? What was happening there in the 19th century that caused a phenomenon like this to erupt so big?
Germany had always made a virtue of their late submission to Latin civilization and had glorified the natural man and woman with all of their virtues and vices. Over 2000 years ago (about 51 B.C.) Julius Caesar noted of the Germans: The only beings they recognize as gods are things that they can see, and by which they are obviously benefited, such as sun, moon and fire; the other gods they have never even heard of.
Vegetarisches Speisehaus, 1900
The word God was neuter in gender in the Teutonic language (Das Gott, or in old Nordic gud) and the Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (98 A.D.) wrote: According to German outlook, pronouncements of destiny seem to acquire a greater sacredness in the mouth of women. Prophecy and magic in a good as well as an evil sense is by choice the gift of women. If it is inherent in the nature of men to show the female sex a great consideration and respect, then this was particularly shaped on the German people from of old. Men earn deification through their deeds, women through their wisdom.
Thus the religiosity of the Indo-Germanic people, whenever their nature can unfold itself freely, emerges only in that form which religious science has described as nature religion or earth religions. To remove the German soul from the natural landscape is to kill it. The Romans knew this so once Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire their missionaries were eager to chop down the German forests and set their temples on fire.
Whenever the church encountered Pagan elements that it could not suppress, it gave them a Christian dimension and assimilated them. These ancestral traditions were reinterpreted and revised, but the church never succeeded in effacing the German Pagan heritage.
Hermann’s victory (9 A.D.) had forestalled Roman colonization, thus Germany had thereby retained its ancient language and avoided early Christianization.
Meister Eckhart (c1260-c1328) possibly represented most strongly the development of the mysticism as a result of the revolt of the Teutonic Indo-European spirit against Roman Christianity.
During the Middle-Ages a group called Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit existed in Germany and Holland. Also known as the Adamites, they were spiritual descendants of an earlier group, the Adamiani. They held nude gatherings in womb like caverns to achieve rebirth into a state of paradisiacal innocence.
In 1796 Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland of Weimar published his landmark study of aging The Art Of Prolonging Life using the word macrobiotic in the preface of the book, while the second edition used the word in it’s title. His emphasis on exercise and fresh air, sunbathing, cleanliness, regular scheduling, temperate diet, stimulating travel and meditation were all far ahead of their time.
Lichtgebet (Prayer To The Sun) by Fidus, 1913
Goethe’s (1749-1832) perspective erased the boundary between man and Nature altogether. The poet of Nature religiosity he believed God can be worshipped in no more beautiful way than by the spontaneous welling up from one’s breast of mutual converse with Nature.
Another prophetic quote from Goethe (1832) Man in his misguidance has powerfully interfered with nature. He has devastated the forests, and thereby even changed the atmospheric conditions and the climate. Some species of plants and animals have become entirely extinct through man, although they were essential in the economy of Nature. Everywhere the purity of the air is affected by smoke and the like, and the rivers are defiled. These and other things are serious encroachments upon Nature, which men nowadays entirely overlook but which are of the greatest importance, and at once show their evil effect not only upon plants but upon animals as well, the latter not having the endurance and power of resistance of man.
In 1866 Ernst Haeckel of Jena University first employed the term ecology, thereby establishing it as a permanent scientific discipline for all future generations. Ecology as a concept had more in common with Buddhism and its recognition of the oneness of all life.
Also in the 1860’s an ex-Protestant minister named Eduard Baltzer published his four-volume book about naturliche lebensweise or natural life style. He organized some vegetarians and founded a Free Religious Community, then later published a book on Pythagoras as the ancestor of his movement.
Diefenbach and Fidus at Hollriegelskreuth, Germany, 1887
Baltzer’s writings had a strong influence upon a young painter named Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach (1851-1913) who also went on to form several communities and workshops for religion, art and science. Diefenbach spent the last portion of his life on the Mediterranean isle of Capri, which was a retreat for other life-reformers. Two of his pupils, Fidus and Gusto Graser were to make a tremendous impact with their art and reform messages.
Fidus (1868-1949) was recognized as perhaps the greatest psychedelic artist ever, pre-dating the 1960’s multi-colored posters and albums by over a half century.
Gusto Graser later went on to become a close friend and teacher of the writer Hermann Hesse. Hesse’s report Among The Rocks- Notes of a Nature Man (1908) described how he, along with Graser lived the lives of natural men and hermits, sleeping in caves in the Swiss Alps and fasting for days and weeks. The guru-disciple relationship within Hesse’s novel Siddhartha (1922) was a mirror of his own association with Graser his teacher. Graser’s poetry appeared in some of the Wandervogel magazines.
In 1870 the population of Germany was 2/3 rural, but by 1900 it had become 2/3 urban. Near the end of the 19th century the German middle class had become superficial, coarse, complacent, gluttonous, materialistic, industrialized, technocratic and pathetic. As a response to this phenomenon many natural healing modalities came into existence and even more youth movements were organized.
In 1883 Louis Kuhne of Leipsic Germany published a book titled The New Science Of Healing, and this work laid the foundation for what was later to become known as Naturopathy. Translated into 50 languages it was the inspiration for a whole generation of health practitioners and was also highly praised by Mahatma Gandhi who said it was very popular in India.
In 1896 Adolf Just opened his Jungborn retreat in the Hartz Mountains near Isenburg Germany, which was a model institution for the true natural life, and was meant to show how the most intimate communion with Nature could be re-established.
Gnadennacht by Fidus, 1912
In 1904 German author Richard Ungewitter wrote a book titled Die Nacktheit (nakedness) wherein he advocated nudism, abstention from meat, tobacco and alcohol. He had to publish it himself, but it quickly became a bestseller. The vegetarian aspect focused on the purity of the body and soul, with adherence to a regular program of fitness. The German attitude towards nudity has not changed too much in 100 years because even now on a warm summer day people along lakes and rivers can be found enjoying themselves in the sunshine without clothing.
Nude Bathing has been popular in Germany a long time. (1916)
Another group, called the Wandervogel, was founded in 1895 by Hermann Hoffmann and Karl Fischer in Steglitz, a suburb of Berlin. They began to take some high school students on nature walks, then later on longer hikes. Soon a huge youth movement that was both anti-bourgeois and Teutonic Pagan in character, composed mostly of middle class German children, organized into autonomous bands.
Wandervogel members, aged mainly between 14-18 years and spread to all parts of Germany eventually numbering 50,000. Part hobo and part medieval, they pooled their money, wore woolen capes, shorts and Tyrolean hats and took long hikes in the country where they sang their own versions of Goliardic songs and camped under primitive conditions. Both sexes swam nude together in the lakes and rivers and in their hometowns they established nests and anti-homes, sometimes in ruined castles where they met to plan trips and play mandolins and guitars.
Their short weekend trips became 3 to 4 weeks long journeys of hundreds of miles. Soon they were establishing permanent camps in the wild that were open to all. With no thought of pay, the bands worked at improving their campsites and building cabins for which they made the furniture-in all forming a complex of precedents underlying the youth-hostel movement which began in 1907 when Richard Schirmann opened the first hostel in Altena Germany.
Mostly the Wandervogel sought communion with nature, with the ancient folk-spirit as embodied in the traditional peasant culture, and with one another. They developed a harmonious mystic resonance with their environment.
The expression Lebensreform (life-reform) was first used in 1896, and comprised various German social trends of the 19th and first half of the 20th century.
Elizabeth Dorr with some of her daughters at Ascona, 1905 (Note the headbands!)
- 1. vegetarianism
- 2. nudism
- 3. natural medicine
- 4. abstinence from alcohol
- 5. clothing reform
- 6. settlement movements
- 7. garden towns
- 8. soil reform
- 9. sexual reform
- 10. health food and economic reform
- 11. social reform
- 12. liberation for women, children and animals
- 13. communitarianism
- 14. cultural and religious reform: i.e. a religion or view of the world that gives weight to the feminine, maternal and natural traits of existence
Further south in Switzerland, Ascona was a little fishing village on the shore of Lake Maggiore, on the Swiss side of the border with Italy. In the year 1900 a counter-culture renaissance began and lasted until about 1920. Ascona became the focal point for all of Europe’s spiritual rebels.
Life experiments were in vogue: surrealism, modern dance, dada, Paganism, feminism, pacifism, psychoanalysis and nature cure. A few of the participants were Hermann Hesse, Carl Jung, Isadora Duncan, D.H. Lawrence, Arnold Ehret and Franz Kafka.
At the turn of the century Germany had 56 million people, and had as many large cities as all of the rest of Europe combined. Industrialism, technology, pollution and affluenza began a crisis amongst the over-privileged German-speaking of that period. The disenchanted began to arrive in Ascona by the hundreds.
The beautiful natural setting inspired urban people to sunbathe in the nude, sleep outdoors, hike, swim and fast. This village quickly developed a universal reputation as a health center.
Hermann Hesse was excited when he saw four longhaired men with sandals walk through his village on their way to Ascona. He followed them, settled in and then took a nature cure for his alcoholism. The year was 1907.
Born July 2, 1877, at the northern edge of the Black Forest in Calw, Germany, Hermann Hesse knew at age 13 that he wanted to be a poet or nothing. Beginning in the 1950’s with the Beat generation, his novels became immensely popular in the English-speaking world, where their criticism of bourgeois values and interest in Eastern spirituality and Jungian psychology echoed the emerging revolt against the unreflected life. In the 1960’s Hermann became the novelist of the decade, with Siddhartha (1922) and Steppenwolf (1927) selling in the millions, and capturing and shaping an American Audience. Legitimate history will always recount Hesse as the most important link between the European counter-culture of his youth and their latter-day descendants in America. (Photo from 1908.)
On August 20, 1903, an anarchist newspaper in San Francisco, California published a large article about Ascona, describing the people and their philosophies. This was certainly one of the first times that detailed news of the European counter-culture had reached the California coast.
Nudists worshipping the Sun, 1926
Eugene Diedrichs Publishing was the highly respected voice of Neo-Paganism and the religious-not the political-arm of the great Volkische movement. Diedrichs envisioned an organic peoples state (organischer Volksstaat) and like Carl Jung preferred a return to the nature religion of the ancient Teutons.
Satana by Fidus, 1896
As the 20th century dawned many Germans began to feel the weight of oppressive political forces, powers that would later lead their nation into 2 world wars and change the course of European history.
Between 1895 and 1914, tens of thousands of Germans left their homes and families and immigrated to America. After all America was the country of the future, and they saw themselves as pioneers helping to lead a new society by transplanting and nurturing the most valuable ideas from their homeland into their new dreams for the United States.
There were several key individuals who made a substantial contribution, but probably none more than Dr. Benedict Lust.
Born in Michelbach near Baden Germany February 3, 1872 Lust first came to America in 1892, became ill with tuberculosis, then returned to Germany and took a nature cure treatment from the famed Father Sebastian Kneipp. He regained his health and found his true purpose in life, then returned to America in 1896 to become a Kneipp representative in America.
Rightfully called The Father Of Naturopathy in America, Lust introduced all of the great naturist movements that were in vogue in Europe; hydrotherapy, herbal remedies, air and light baths, various plant-based diets and he also translated and distributed the German classic health works of Father Kneipp, Louis Kuhne, Adolf Just, Arnold Ehret and August Englehardt.
Near the turn of the century in New York City he founded a school of massage and the Naturopathic Society, then in 1918 he published Universal Naturopathic Encyclopedia for drugless therapy. Nature’s Path Magazine and a radio show devoted to natural healing were also some of his notable achievements.
Dr. Benedict Lust enjoys a sun-bath at Sonnenbichel sun and air park in Kneipp-Bad Worishofen, Bavaria, Germany on a return to the Fatherland in the summer of 1926. The Father of Naturopathy in America, no single individual contributed more to natural healing and lifestyle in the world than Dr. Lust did through his many schools and publications. Everything from massage, herbology, raw foods, anti-vivisection and hydro-therapy to Eastern influences like Ayurveda and Yoga found their way to an American audience through Lust. Though he was repeatedly harassed by Medical authorities and Federal agents, his devotion to promoting Nature’s methods of healing finaly gained wide acceptance. Like so many others from his generation, he was a tough man. (Photo from Naturopath, February, 1927)
eden ahbez, 1948. Part-time yogi and full-time mystic, this 1940s hippie always spelled his name with small letters because he believed that only God and Infinity should be capitalized. (Photo courtesy of Gypsy Boots)
Dr. Lust’s school of Naturopathy was the starting point for hundreds of America’s natural health practitioners, while his magazines introduced the West not only to German Nature Cure, but also ancient East Indian concepts like Ayurveda and Yoga. Paramahansa Yogananda was one of several Indians who wrote articles for Nature’s Path magazine in the 1920’s gaining wide exposure to a large American audience.
Dr. Lust was busted repeatedly by American authorities and medical associations, for promoting natural methods of healing, massage and nude sun bathing at his Jungborn sanitarium. He was arrested 16 times by New York authorities and 3 times by Feds. One news headline read simply They Have Lust Again.
As many as 30-40% of the graduates of Dr. Lusts school of Naturopathy were women, and his magazines were full of enthusiastic letters and praise from practicing Naturopaths in India, Jamaica and all over Latin America. No one was more devoted to introducing nature cure to the Spanish-speaking world than Dr. Lust.
Another influential Nature Doctor, Dr. Carl Schultz, arrived in Los Angeles California in 1885 and became the Benedict Lust of the west. In 1905 he created the Naturopathic Institute and Sanitarium and also opened the Naturopathic College on Hope Street. Most of the practicing nature doctors in the west were graduates of this college.
Bill Pester at this palm log cabin in Palm Canyon, California, 1917. With his lebensreform philosophy, nudism and raw foods diet, he was one of the many German immigrants, who invented the hippie lifestyle more than half a century before the 1960s. He left Germany to avoid military service in 1906 at age 19, for a new life in America. (Photo Courtesy of Palm Springs Art Museum, Palm Springs, California)
In 1906 Bill Pester first set foot on American soil having left Saxony, Germany that same year at age 19 to avoid military service. With his long hair, beard and lebensreform background he wasted no time in heading to California to begin his new life.
He settled in majestic Palm Canyon in the San Jacinto Mountains near Palm Springs California and built himself a palm hut by the flowing stream and palm grove.
Bill spent his time exploring the desert canyons, caves and waterfalls, but was also an avid reader and writer. He earned some of his living making walking sticks from palm blossom stalks, selling postcards with lebensreform health tips, and charging people 10 cents to look through his telescope while he gave lectures on astronomy.
He made his own sandals, had a wonderful collection of Indian pottery and artifacts, played slide guitar, lived on raw fruits and vegetables and managed to spend most of his time naked under the California sunshine.
During the time when Bill lived near Palm Springs he was on Cahuilla Indian land, with permission from the local tribe who had great admiration for him. His name even appeared on the 1920 census with the Indians, and in 1995 An American Indian woman Millie Fischer published a small booklet about Palm Canyon that included a chapter on Pester.
The many photos of Pester clearly reveal the strong link between the 19th century German reformers and the flower children of the 1960’s…long hair and beards, bare feet or sandals, guitars, love of nature, draft dodger, living simple and an aversion to rigid political structure. Undoubtedly Bill Pester introduced a new human type to California and was a mentor for many of the American Nature Boys.
Professor Arnold Ehret, taken shortly after his 49 day fast in Cologne, Germany, circa 1905. Ehret later migrated to southern California and helped to spawn a new sub-culture in America, based upon his natural philosophy and lifestyle. His books have never been out of print in over 70 years. (Photo courtesy of Fred Hirsch)
In 1914 another German immigrant, Professor Arnold Ehret arrived in California. The philosophy he preached had a powerful influence on various aspects of American culture. Ehret advocated fasting, raw foods, nude sun bathing and letting your hair and beard grow un-trimmed. His Rational Fasting (1914) and Mucus-less Diet(1922) were literary standbys within hippie circles in San Francisco and Los Angeles in the 1960’s.
The husband and wife team of John and Vera Richter first opened their Raw-Foods cafeteria the Eutropheon in 1917, and during it’s lifetime it hosted thousands of customers and taught many people how to prepare such raw treats as sun-dried bread, salads, dressings, soups, beverages and many other healthy alternatives to the typical Los Angeles cuisine of the 1920’s-1940’s.
John’s powerful lectures were attended by many young health enthusiasts, who later went on to become well known health teachers and authors, and Vera’s recipe book was the precursor to many of the modern Live-Food recipe books.
Some of the young employees of the Eutropheon were Americans who had adopted the German Naturmensch and Lebensreform image and philosophy, wearing their hair and beards long and feeding exclusively on raw fruits and vegetables. The Nature Boys came from all over America but usually ended up in southern California. Some of the familiar ones were Gypsy Jean, eden ahbez, Maximilian Sikinger, Bob Wallace, Emile Zimmerman, Gypsy Boots, Buddy Rose, Fred Bushnoff and Conrad. This was decades before the Beats or Hippies and their influence was very substantial. In On The Road Kerouac noted that while passing through Los Angeles in the summer of 1947 he saw an occasional Nature Boy saint in beard and sandals.
Seven of California’s Nature Boys in Topanga Canyon, August 1948. They were the first generation of americans to adopt the naturmensch philosophy and image, living in the mountains and sleeping in caves and trees, sometimes as many as 15 of them at a time. All had visited and some were employed at The Eutropheon where John Richter gave his inspiring lectures about raw foods and natural living. The boys would sometimes travel up the California coast some 500 miles just to pick and eat some fresh figs. (Back row: Gypsy Boots, Bob Wallace, Emile Zimmerman. Front row: Fred Bushnoff, eden ahbez, Buddy Rose, ?) – (Photo courtesy of Gypsy Boots.)
Cover of Nature Boy songbook, eden ahbez, 1948. Born into a poor Jewish family with 13 hungry children, the orphan from Brooklyn never had to worry about where the money would come from after the success of his #1 hit tune, made famous by Nat King Cole.
But in the spring of 1948 eden ahbez became an internationally recognized personality when his song Nature Boy was recorded by Nat King Cole. Photos and story of eden and his wife Anna appeared in Life, Time and Newsweek magazines that year.
Born in Brooklyn New York, April 15, 1908 ahbez had walked across America 4 times, hopped freight trains and lived in a cave in Tahquitz Canyon before he penned his #1 hit tune, which was on the hit parade for 15 weeks.
The song itself was part autobiographical but was also a nod to his German mentor Bill Pester who was 23 years his senior and had been a Nature Boy for decades when eden encountered him in the Coachella Valley of southern California.
Another one of the Nature Boys, Maximillian Sikinger was born in Augsberg Germany in 1913 and spent most of his childhood and youth living wild in the environs of various European cities. Through his wanderings, personal contacts and outdoor living he developed a keen interest in various aspects of natural healing; nutrition, water cure, fasting, sitz baths, deep breathing and sunshine.
Nature Boy, Maximillian Sikinger, at home in the Santa Monica Mountains, 1946. Max left Germany in 1935 then made his way to Southern California where he inspired many American kids to become Nature Boys. By the 1960s, he was a regular fixture at pop festivals and concerts and was considered a guru to many Topanga hippies.
Max left Europe in 1935 at age 22, arrived in America then eventually made his way west to California where he traveled with the Nature Boys who valued his introspective and philosophical ideas very highly. Maximillian’s world travels and rugged background had given him deep insight into many of life’s puzzles.
But the one Nature Boy to pass the torch from the old era (circa 1930’s-40’s)…into the 1960’s hippie generation was Gypsy Boots.
Born in San Francisco in 1916 to Russian Jewish parents Boots grew up in the San Francisco area where he quit school at an early age to travel and live a life close to nature. He met Maximillian on the beach at Kelley’s Cove in 1935 and it was then that his life began to change. Boots noted in his autobiography: It was with Max that I first experimented with fasting and special diets, and also learned much about yoga.
In the 1940’s Boots lived wild in Tahquitz Canyon with all of the Nature Boys, bathing in the cool mountain water, eating fruits and vegetables, sleeping on rocks or in caves, hiking and selling produce in Palm Springs.
In 1953 he married Lois Bloemker, settled near Griffith Park in Los Angeles and had 3 sons. In 1958 he opened his Health Hut in Hollywood, which was a big hit, and shortly thereafter began his career as a serious health teacher and example of optimum living.
In the early 1960’s he appeared on the Steve Allen show over 25 times to an audience of some 25 million households. Steve Allen had originally started the Tonight show, then began his own show featuring guests like Elvis Presley, Jack Kerouac, Frank Zappa and the psychedelic band Blue Cheer.
When the Beatles and Rolling Stones arrived in Los Angeles in the mid 1960’s their pudding basin hairstyles seemed tame when compared to a local rock band The Seeds who wore shoulder length hair, thanks to the influence of Gypsy Boots and his ilk. Seeds singer Sky Saxon, a vegetarian, had invented a new type of music….Flower Punk. Even Jimi Hendrix had a front row seat to a Seeds concert, and the Doors played second bill on a Seeds tour.
When the Love-In’s began in Griffith Park in 1966 some of the Flower Children who were stoned on Owsley acid looked up in the big trees to see Gypsy Boots swinging and climbing from branch to limb, then exclaiming what’s that guy on…. I’d sure like to have a hit of that! But Boots high was always induced from his sun-charged foods like figs and grapes, as well as his fitness regime.
At the Monterey and Newport Pop festivals in 1967 and 1968 Boots was a paid performer along with acts like the Grateful Dead, Ravi Shankar, The Jefferson Airplane and The Jimi Hendrix Experience.
Two of Boots greatest admirers were Mama Cass Elliot of The Mamas And Papas and Carolyn (Mountain Girl) Garcia, Jerry Garcia’s wife.
German-issue of a rare Capitol 45 picture sleeve single from 1968, We’re Having A Lovin-In, recorded by California Nature Boy Gypsy Boots.
The surf scene foreshadowed the hippie period by at least a decade with many common features. This surf-sedan was painted psychedelic in 1962 on Oahu, Hawaii, a half-decade before the infamous Summer of Love in San Francisco.
Surf Bohemians with shaggy hair, goatees and vegetarian lifestyle, rode their redwood boards on un-crowded waves in the early 1950’s in the Malibu area. The surf scene of the late 1950’s in California and Hawaii was a precursor to the counter-culture that began in 1964, including components like long hair, natural foods, trips to Mexico, psychedelic music, living outdoors, unique vocabulary, anti-authoritarian posture and global travel destinations. A surf band called The Gamblers had a hit song titled Moon Dawg in 1960, and the B-side was the song LSD 25. Dick Dale, the undisputed King of the surf guitar had a hit with Let’s Go Trippin in 1961, which was later recorded by the Beach Boys (1964). Noted surf artist Rick Griffin later became a respected hippie artist as well.
On the east coast of America professors Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) and Ralph Metzner were busy in the early 1960’s with their psychedelic research, first at Harvard University then later at the Millbrook estate in New York. They were quick to recognize the strong correlation between L.S.D. induced archetypes and their many Germanic antecedents available from 20th century scientists, artists and writers.
L.S.D. was first synthesized in 1938 by Dr. Albert Hoffmann in Switzerland. In the fall of 1963 Dr. Leary and his colleague German born Dr. Metzner, published an article in their quarterly magazine The Psychedelic Review titled: Hermann Hesse: Poet of the Interior Journey. Although Hesse’s novels Siddhartha(1922) and Steppenwolf(1927) were published in Germany many decades before the 1960’s, they considered them the most important psychedelic literature available. Partly through the influence of this article these two novels sold millions in the 60’s and rode in the backpacks of a whole generation. Nearly all hippies read Hesse!
In 1964 Leary, Alpert and Metzner published their landmark book The Psychedelic Experience which was quickly labeled the bible of the hippie movement. In the introduction they included a tribute to Swiss psychologist Dr. Carl Jung who had committed himself to the inner vision of internal perception. Dr. Jung, a one time resident of the commune at Ascona (1900) had witnessed first hand many spiritual purifying rituals involving fasting, diet and excessive hiking, that could sometimes induce a psychedelic-type high.
Herbst (Autumn), mural sketch by Fidus, 1934
(Note peace symbol on top)
As the 1960’s flowered the peace symbol (used by Fidus as early as 1934) became a familiar icon in artwork and graffiti…while the Volkswagen bus became the most quintessential symbol for hippie transportation and even lifestyle. The bus was created and engineered in 1949 by technicians of the Wandervogel generation.
Nature Boy eden ahbez sat in on the Beach Boys Pet Sounds recordings in 1966. And while the Beatles popularity reached it’s absolute zenith by 1968….most of their fans never knew that the once scruffy bar band from Liverpool received their first big break playing in clubs in Hamburg Germany in 1960. The four English lads with greasy slicked-back 50’s style hair radically changed their image and hairstyles after meeting Klaus Voorman and several of the other German art students who wore shaggy long hair with bangs. George Harrison said that German photographer Astrid Kirchherr invented the Beatles with her camera giving them tips on dress and posing, and capturing their images in some priceless early photo shoots.
As a deep heartfelt thanks to their faithful German fans the Beatles later recorded Komm gib Mir Deine Hand (I Want To Hold Your Hand) and Sie Liebt Dich (She Loves You) singing in German.
Klaus Voorman designed the cover and drew the artwork for the Beatles landmark Revolver (1966) album. The Beatles German period can be viewed in the video Backbeat (1994). Psychedelic music exploded from a ferocious British band called The Yardbirds (1963-1968) whose lead guitarists included Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page. Virtually every heavy band from Jimi Hendrix and Cream to Black Sabbath and Van Halen used the formula invented by The Yardbirds.
Nature Boy Gypsy Boots getting ready for the Newport Pop Festival in August 1968. Born in San Francisco in 1916 he was the most important living link between the old Naturmensch and the Flower Children of the 1960s. He was a paid performer at many concerts along with acts like the Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, but he had been living the hippie lifestyle wild in Nature since the 1930s. (Photo courtesy of Gypsy Boots)
This California surfer and his girlfriend were some of the young folks who went to live wild in nature during the late 1960s and early ’70s, mostly in California, Hawaii and parts of Europe. This most radical form of communalism was a replay of the Wandervogel and Naturmensch period some 60 years before in Germany and Switzerland (Taylor Park, Kauai, Hawaii, 1971)
The first Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970, later, July of 1972 saw the first Rainbow Gathering near Granby Lake in Colorado. It began as a healing gathering with spiritual nature-loving participants, and according to long time Rainbow focalizer Michael John: Our roots are in the Pagan festivals of the Middle Ages, and the time after Christ when the way we celebrate the summer and our union was here, something has called us to that memory, to give us the chance to re-experience that. I think that the Rainbow Gathering is just the resurfacing of the ancient Festivals. (From: People Of The Rainbow Michael Niman-1997)
Also in the early 1970’s many hippies in California and Hawaii embraced the most radical form of earth habitation…living in caves (and sometimes tree-houses) in the wilderness, native style. Most of the larger watercourses in southern California like Tahquitz, Deep Creek, Sespe and The Big Sur River had young cave dwellers in their canyons.
This was an echo of the Naturmensch and Wandervogel with their wild seasonal forays in the Alps and farther south into Italy, some 50 years before…and of Bill Pester who came to California in 1906 to live in Nature.
The Ferals of eastern Australia are yet another present day link in the chain of youths who have abandoned urbanism and returned into forested areas where they live mostly in nomadic tipis in the Nimbin/Byron region of New South Wales, sometimes numbering as many as 10,000.
By the mid 1990’s there were as many as 10,000 Ferals living in the forests of eastern Australia, many of them in the region surrounding Nimbin and Byron Bay in New South Wales. Small nomadic tipis are the preferred habitation and nearly all of these Gen-X kids come from the big cities like Sydney and Melbourne, and are a modern-day echo of the German Naturmensch and the American youth movements in the 1960s.
Fred Hirsch, the man who published Professor Arnold Ehret’s books for over 50 years in his office in Beaumont California was host to many acid heads who had shifted to sun-foods during the 1970’s to maintain their high as well as a strong connection with the plant kingdom.
The Green political Party began in Germany in the late 1970’s as an outgrowth of the 1950’s anti-nuclear movements in Europe, later spread to other parts of the world including America.
Fruhlingsodem by Fidus, 1893
That’s why hippies will never go away…because they’ve always been here anyway.
Gordon Kennedy is the author of Children of the Sun, a book about the origins of the Hippie Movement in Germany and the ideas they introduced to the US in the early 1900s.
Copyright 2003-Kennedy/Ryan Nivaria Press; All rights reserved including the right of reproduction of text or images.[Excerpts taken from “Children of the Sun; A Pictorial Anthology From Germany To California, 1883-1949”-By Gordon Kennedy 1998 ISBN 0-9668898-0-0]
Posted by: Skip
– Paul Williams(Das Energi) 1973
take the game of life seriously, if you take your nervous system seriously,
if you take your sense organs seriously, if you take the energy process
seriously, you must turn on, tune in, and drop out.
– Timothy Leary
The Politics of Ecstacy
To find some great Mind Expanding Music go to Hip Planet’s Music Store!
Ready to blow your mind? Here are some head trips you can take….
- Philosophy, Religion and Enlightenment Forum – Get into some mind expanding dialogue with other hippies!
- Yoga & Meditation Forum – Unite mind, body and soul!
- Coolove.org – Community of One Love. Discuss philosophy and the mind.
This well organized site is a must surf for the thinking hippie. Conspiracies, cults, counter-culture and censorship are just some of the intriguing subjects which get their due here. Find out what’s really going on behind the scenes via hundreds of rated links and a great search engine.
- The Timothy Leary Site. This is the place to go to find out more about this great psychedelic guru. Researcher, author, pundit, fugitive, purveyor of mind expanding insights, he turned on, tuned in and a whole generation dropped IT with Tim.
- Alchemical Garden at the Edge of Time
- Church of Gnostic Luminism – A conspiracy to save the world in our lifetime… or die trying
- Hippyland Astrology Page
- Changes: Celebrating our growing consciousness
- Hippyland Science Fiction Page
- Institute for Astroenergetic Studies – Astrology, Buddhism, Tibetan Art, Psychedelic Research
Posted by: skip
Hip Guide to Amsterdam – Our site all about fabulous Amsterdam!
Guide to Morocco – An adventure from the Rif Mountains to the Sahara
– Thousands of images of our members, artworks, travel destinations, the 60s & 70s.
– Learn about the high priests of the psychedelic movement.
Hippyland’s Drug Page
– Your connections for information, gear, and other sites about drugs.
Music Page – Links
to sites about music and popular Hippie bands.
The Mind Expansion Page
– Links to sites guaranteed to blow your mind.
The Hip Site Page
– A carefully selected group of the best sites for hippies on the net!
Travel Guide – Information
about traveling to various destinations with links.
Hip Communities Forum –
Meet and make friends with people from Hip Places around the world.
– Find out about communes and sustainable lifestyles.
The Love Page – Links
to sites that specialize in the loving arts.
The Vegetarian Page
– Links to numerous vegetarian sites, as well as our own page.
The Munchies Forum
– A thousand recipes to cure the muchies!
Sci-Fi Page – Some
cool Science Fiction links.
The Arts Page – Cool
links to interesting Art sites.
– A page of Poetry from our hippie friends.
Poetry Forum –
Post your own poems for all to read!
– A forum for posting whatever pops into your head!
Posted by: skip
For more on this subject visit:
For Great Hippy
Music, check out
To Buy books
about Hippies go to HipMarket’s
January – Bob Dylan, age 19 plays at the Wha
in Greenwich Village and visits Woody Guthrie in the Hospital
Jan – Civil rights demonstrations in Atlanta
Feb 1 – Four black students start sit-in at whites
only lunch counter in Greensboro S. Carolina
Feb 13 – France becomes the fourth nuclear power
Mar 15 – Lunch-counter sit-ins spread to 15 cities
in 5 southern states
May 6 – Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed by Eisenhower
July – Sidney Cohen’s survey of 5,000 individuals
who had taken LSD 25,000 times concludes it is safe
Aug 9 – Timothy Leary, 39, tries psilocybin mushrooms
Aug 10 – Antarctic Treaty creates peaceful scientific
Nov – JFK elected president.
Nov – Eisenhower warns the nation about
the Military-Industrial Complex and its power.
Nov 9 – Brian Epstein first sees the Beatles.
Dec – Birth Control Pills go on sale in
Jan 17 – Eisenhower warns of increasing power
of military-industrial complex
Feb 18 – Bertrand Russell, 89, leads march of
20,000 & sit-down of 5,000 anti-nuke outside U.K. Defense Ministry
and is jailed for 7 days
Mar – Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) takes psilocybin
as part of the Harvard Project
Mar 1 – John Kennedy initiates 17 billion dollar
nuclear missile program, increases military aid to Indochina & announces
creation of the Peace Corps
Apr 11 – Bob Dylan’s first billed performance
at Gerde’s Folk City
Apr 12 – Yuri Gagarin of the USSR is the first
man in space
Apr 25 – Bay of Pigs, Cuba U.S. planned invasion
is defeated by Castro
May 4 – Freedom Riders leave DC for a southern
tour to test integration in bus stations
May 28 – Amnesty International Founded
July – Ban The Bomb Demonstrations start worldwide
July 19 – First Telstar Satellite Live TV Transmission
across the Atlantic
Aug 13 – East German border guards begin construction
of Berlin Wall
Sept 15 – U.S. starts underground nuclear testing
Oct 6 – President Kennedy advises Americans to
build fallout shelters
Feb 16 – Boston SANE & fledgling SDS hold
first anti-nuclear march on Washington with 4000-8000 protesters
Apr 25 – U.S. resumes atmospheric nuclear testing
after 3 year moratorium
Sept – Timothy Leary founds International Foundation
for Internal Freedom (IFIF) to promote LSD research & publish The Psychedelic
Oct 22 – Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviet missile
bases in Cuba, Kennedy orders naval blockade.
Jan – Alabama Gov. Wallace’s Segregation Forever
speech at inauguration
Apr 3 – SCLC & volunteers stage sit-in in
Apr 12 – Martin Luther King & Ralph Abernathy
go to jail in Birmingham
Jun 11 – JFK Proposes the Civil Rights Bill
Jun 12 – Civil rights leader Medgar Evers assassinated.
July – Timothy Leary hosts Freedom House
groups in Zihuatanejo, Mexico, Dominica & then Antigua
July – Newport Folk Festival July 26-28, includes
Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Pete Seeger
Aug 5 – First Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed
Aug 28 – Martin Luther King’s I Have a Dream
speech, Wash DC Civil Rights March 1963, 200,000 attend
Aug 30 – U.S. -Soviet Hotline installed
Sept – Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert, and other
Harvard alumni LSD researchers move to the Hitchcock’s estate in Millbrook,
Sept 24 – Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified by
Oct 10 – Nuclear Test Ban Treaty takes effect
Oct 13 – Beatles on TV at London Palladium.
15 million get to see them perform She Loves You and Twist and Shout.
Nov 22 – JFK Assassinated in Dallas, Texas, LBJ
Nov 22 – Aldous Huxley dies while tripping on
Nov 24 – LBJ escalates the Vietnam War
Nov 29 – Beatles I Want to Hold Your Hand Released
Jan 8 – LBJ declares War on Poverty in State
of the Union address
Jan 11 – U.S. Surgeon General declares cigarettes
cause lung disease
Jan 30 – New military junta takes over in South
Feb 7 – Beatles arrive in New York to 10,000
Feb 9 – Beatles first appear on Ed Sullivan Show,
74 million people watch, the largest audience in the history of television.
Apr 23 – Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl
May – Bob Dylan’s first visit to England, meets
The Beatles & Rolling Stones; turns The Beatles on to marijuana.
July – Millbrook LSD sessions with Timothy Leary
July – Ken Kesey’s First Magic Bus Trip to NY
July 2 – LBJ signs US Civil Rights Act: public
facilities opened to all
July 18 – Race riot in Harlem, NY
July 23 – Senate passes $947 million antipoverty
Aug – Ken Kesey & his Merry Pranksters visit
Timothy Leary & Richard Alpert at Millbrook.
Aug – Beatles first U.S. tour: 25 North American
Aug 4 – Three missing civil rights workers found
dead in Mississippi
Aug 11 – Beatles’ A Hard Day’s Night movie released
Aug 20 – LBJ signs anti-poverty program
Aug 23 – Beatles Hollywood Bowl concert
Aug 28 – Race riots in Philadelphia
Aug 31 – LBJ signs food stamp bill
Oct 14 – Martin Luther King Jr. wins Nobel Peace
Dec 10 – Martin Luther King awarded Nobel Peace
Time Mag calls young people generation of conformists
Jan 4 – President Johnson outlines Great Society
Feb – Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 other protesters arrested in Selma,
Alabama for picketing county courthouse to end discrim voting rights
Feb 8 – U.S. starts bombing North Vietnam
Feb 18 – Sect. of Defense Robert McNamara calls for nationwide
network of bomb shelters
Feb 21 – Malcolm X shot and killed
Mar 3 – Owsley starts LSD factory, making large quantities of acid
available for the first time
Mar 6 – First American soldier officially sets foot on Vietnam battlefields
Mar 7 – Alabama state troopers attack 525 civil rights workers as they
prepare to march
Mar 8 – 3,500 Marines land to protect Da Nang air base
Mar 16 – Quaker Alice Herz, 82, immolates self in Detroit in protest
of the Vietnam war
Mar 16 – Police break-up demonstration of 600 in Montgomery, Alabama
Mar 17 – 1,600 people demonstrate at Montgomery, Alabama courthouse
Mar 21 – Martin Luther King Jr. leads march from Selma to Montgomery,
Alabama joined by 25,000 marchers
Mar 24 – SDS organizes first Vietnam War teach-in at Univ. of Michigan
3000 show up
Mar 25 – Civil rights worker shot and killed by KKK in Alabama
Mar 28 – Martin Luther King calls for boycott of Alabama on TV
Apr – 25,000 U.S. troops stationed in Vietnam
Apr 2 – Ken Kesey busted for marijuana first time
Apr 17 – SDS leads first anti-Vietwar march in Washington. 25,000 attend
including Phil Ochs, Joan Baez and Judy Collins
Jun 11 – Beatles awarded the MBE by the Queen
July 8 – Chicago school integration protests
July 10 – Rolling Stones’ I Can’t Get No Satisfaction #1
July 24 – Bob Dylan’s Like A Rolling Stone enters charts
July 25 – Dylan goes Rock at Newport Folk Festival
July 30 – LBJ signs Medicare bill
Aug – Ken Kesey meets Hunter Thompson who introduces the Hells Angels
to the Merry Pranksters; Alan Ginsberg & Richard Alpert are at the
Aug 11 – Major race riot (6 days) in Watts, leaves 35 dead
Aug 13 – Nat’l Guard enters Watts riots in L.A.
Aug 14 – Sonny and Cher release I Got You Babe
Aug 23 – Premiere of Beatles’ Help!
Aug 31 – Burning draft cards becomes illegal
Sept 5 – San Francisco writer Michael Fallon applies the term hippie
to the SF counterculture in an article about the Blue Unicorn coffeehouse
where LEMAR (Legalize Marijuana) & the Sexual Freedom League meet,
& hippie houses.
Sept 25 – “Eve of Destruction”, sang by Barry McGuire top of the charts
Oct 1 – Anti-pollution bill sets emission standards for cars
Oct 16 – 100,000 anti-war protesters nationwide in 80 cities
Nov – Unsafe at Any Speed about the automobile industry’s disregard
for safety, published by Ralph Nader.
Nov 22 – Bob Dylan marries Sarah Lowndes & moves to Woodstock,
Dec 25 – Timothy Leary busted for pot at the Mexican border
Jan 3 – The Psychedelic Shop head shop opens on Haight Street, S.F.
Jan 14 – March on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond
Jan 17 – B52 collides, drops 4 10-megaton H bombs on Spain, none explode,
Jan 20 – Ken Kesey busted again with Mountain Girl on the roof.
Jan 21 – First light show, Grateful Dead, 10,000 people in S.F.
Feb 19 – Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and the Holding Company
with Janis Joplin perform at the Fillmore
Mar 3 – GI Bill grants veterans rights to education, housing, health
Mar 11 – Timothy Leary sentenced in Texas to 30 years for trying
to cross into Mexico with a small amount of marijuana
Mar 25 – Anti-Vietnam war protests in NY bring out 25,000 on 5th Ave.
Other protests in 7 US cities and 7 foreign cities.
Apr – FBI releases file on LSD, drug gets bad press
Apr – 30 Mississippi blacks build tent city under President Johnson’s
window to protest housing conditions in their state
Apr – Discotheques are the rage in NY and LA. Andy Warhol puts on light
Apr 7 – Sandoz stops supplying LSD to researchers
Apr 12 – NY Stock Exchange hit with anti-war leaflets
Apr 16 – Timothy Leary busted at Millbrook by G. Gordon Liddy &
FBI for possession of marijuana
May 15 – Antiwar demonstration in D.C., 10,000 attend
July 29 – Bob Dylan’s motorcycle accident
Aug 5 – Lennon says Beatles more popular than Jesus
Aug 18 – Red Guard begins to wipe out western influence in China
Sept – George Harrison goes to India for 6 weeks to study sitar with
Sept – Timothy Leary holds press conference at NY Advertising Club
announcing formation of a psychedelic religion – League for Spiritual Discovery
(Turn on, tune in, drop out) & starts nightly presentations at the
Nov 5 – Walk for Love and Peace and Freedom: 10,000 + in New York City
Dec – Cream’s first album: Fresh Cream released. Eric Clapton,
Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker.
Jan 14 – Gathering of the Tribes, First Human Be-In, 20,000, S.F.
Jan 27 – US, USSR, UK sign treaty banning nuclear weapons in
Feb – 25,000 US troops sent to Cambodian border
Feb – Beatles release Strawberry Fields Forever, Penny Lane, Michelle,
Mar – Scientist report LSD causes chromosome damage (never validated).
Mar – The Berkeley Barb starts the smokable banana rumor (based upon
Donovan’s song Mellow Yellow)
Mar 3 – Alice B. Toklas dies
Mar 18 – First U.S. supertanker wreck. Torrey Canyon spills 90,000
tons of oil onto English shores
Mar 26 – Be-In at Central Park in NY. 10,000 attend
Apr 5 – Grayline starts hippie tours of Haight/Ashbury
Apr 10 – Vietnam Week starts. Draft card burnings and anti-draft
Apr 15 – Anti-Vietnam War protest. 400,000 march from Central Park
to UN. Speeches by Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael and Dr. Benjamin
May – Paul McCartney announces that all the Beatles have dropped acid.
May 19 – First U.S. air strike on Hanoi
May 20 – Flower Power Day in NYC 1967
Jun 2 – Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band album by the Beatles
Jun 16 – Monterey Pop Festival
Jun 21 – Summer Solstice Party in Golden Gate Park
Jun 25 – Beatles sing All You Need Is Love on TV 1967
Jun 30 – 448,400 US troops now in Vietnam
July – The Summer of Love in San Francisco
July – Summer of Rioting in the US. Blacks take to the streets
in Chicago, Brooklyn, Cleveland and Baltimore
July 1 – Sgt. Pepper hits #1
July 11 – Newark riots start long hot summer
July 24 – 43 Die in Detroit rioting, worst in U.S. history
July 26 – H. Rap Brown arrested for inciting a riot in Maryland
July 29 – Door’s Light My Fire and Procol Harem’s Whiter Shade of Pale
vie for #1
Aug 26 – Jimi Hendrix’s Are You Experienced hits the charts
Aug 27 – Beatles in India with Maharishi informed of Brian Epstein’s
Sept – Richard Alpert meets Bhagwan Dass at the Blue Tibetan in Katmandu,
stays in India & follows him until he meets his guru.
Sept 15 – Donovan performs at the Hollywood Bowl
Oct 3 – Woody Guthrie dies
Oct 8 – Che Guevarra killed in Bolivia by US-trained troops
Oct 12 – Big Brother and the Holding Company’s Cheap Thrills with Janis
Joplin at top of LP charts.
Oct 20 – Seven KKK members convicted of conspiracy in 1964 murders
of three civil rights worker
Oct 21-22 – Anti-war protesters storm the Pentagon
Oct 21 – Diggers exorcise the Pentagon. 35,000 Demonstrate,
Oct 26 – Draft deferments eliminated for those who violate draft laws
or interfere with recruitment
Nov 14 – Air Quality Act provides $428 million to fight air pollution
Nov 20 – National Commission on Product Safety established
Dec – Beatles release Magical Mystery Tour
Dec – 486,000 American troops in Vietnam, of the 15,000 killed to date,
60% died in 1967.
Dec – Stop the Draft movement organized by 40 antiwar groups, nationwide
Dec 5 – 1000 antiwar protesters try to close NYC induction center.
585 arrested including Allen Ginsberg and Dr. Benjamin Spock
Dec 5 – Beatles open Apple Shop in London
Dec 8 – Otis Redding records Dock of the Bay
Dec 10 – Otis Redding dies in plane crash
Dec 22 – Owsley busted, stops making acid
Dec 31 – Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory, &
friends pronounce themselves Yippies
Jan 16 – Youth International Party (Yippies) founded
Jan 18 – Eartha Kitt visiting LBJ at White House speaks out against
Jan 22 – B-52 carrying H-bomb crashes in Greenland
Jan 23 – USS Pueblo seized by Korea
Jan 31 – Viet Cong launch Tet Offensive
Feb – Timothy Leary evicted from Millbrook house
Feb – Beatles go to India to visit Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at Rishikesh
on the Ganges river. Mia Farrow, Donovan follow.
Feb 8 – George Wallace announce candidacy for President on law and
Mar 12 – Eugene McCarthy wins 42% of New Hampshire vote in presidential
Mar 16 – My Lai massacre 200 – 500 Vietnamese villagers killed
Mar 16 – Robert F. Kennedy announces candidacy for President
Mar 31 – LBJ announces decision not to run again and offers partial
Vietnam bombing halt
Apr 4 – Martin Luther King shot and killed in Memphis
Apr – The week following Martin Luther King Jr.’s murder sees black
uprisings in 125 cities across the U.S.
Apr 6 – Oakland Police ambush Black Panthers. Eldridge Cleaver arrested
with a bullet-shattered leg. Bobby Hutton shot and killed.
Apr 8 – Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs established (DEA)
Apr 11 – LBJ signs civil rights bill banning housing discrimination
Apr 11 – Major call-up of reserves for duty in Vietnam
Apr 14 – Love-in at Malibu Canyon, Calif.
Apr 15 – Start of Spring Mobilization against the Vietnam war
Apr 23 – SDS lead students take over 5 buildings at Colombia Univ for
a week. 700 arrested
Apr 24 – 300 Black students occupy admin. building at Boston Univ.
demanding black studies and financial aid
Apr 25 – Paul Horn records in the Taj Mahal
Apr 29 – The rock musical HAIR opened on Broadway at the Biltmore Theater
May 10 – Vietnam peace talks begin in Paris
Jun 3 – Andy Warhol shot by woman
Jun 5 – Bobby Kennedy assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan moments after winning
Jun 14 – Dr. Benjamin Spock convicted of conspiracy to abet draft evasion
July 1 – Nuclear nonproliferation treaty signed by 61 nations
Aug 1 – 541,000 U.S. Troops in Vietnam
August 3, 1968 – The first Newport Pop Festival in Costa Mesa, California to an audience of over 100,000 people. Performers include Steppenwolf, Jefferson Airplane, Sonny & Cher, Tiny Tim, the Byrds, Iron Butterfly, The Grateful Dead and Eric Burdon & the Animals.
Aug 8 – Nixon and Agnew nominated during Miami riots
Aug 20 – Soviets invade Czechoslovakia
August 25-29 – Democratic Convention in Chicago demonstrations
& police riot 10,000 +/- demonstrators vs. 11,000 Chicago police;
6,000 National Guard; 7,500 U.S. army troops; and 1,000 FBI, CIA &
other services agents (Humphrey nominated on platform supporting
Aug 28 – Humphrey and Muskie nominated amid violent antiwar protests
in Chicago. Bystanders and press also beaten by police
Oct 18 – John & Yoko Busted
Nov – First Whole Earth Catalog published by Stewart Brand.
Nov 5 – Nixon elected President, Spiro T. Agnew, VP
Nov 6 – Student Strike at SF State
Jan 28 – Santa Barbara, Ca. oil well blowout
Feb – Massive strike at U.C. Berkeley for ethnic studies
Feb 11 – 200 students smash computers with axes & set computer
center on fire during sit-in protesting prof’s racism at St. George Williams
Feb 13 – 33 students arrested at admin bldg sit-in at Univ of Mass.
Feb 18 – Students seize building and boycott started at Howard
Feb 24 – Students occupy Admin bldg at Penn State
Feb 27 – Police charge student picket lines, club and arrest two Chicano
leaders at U.C. Berkeley
Feb 27 – Thousands rampage thru nine buildings at U of Wisconsin, Madison
over black enrollments
Mar 12 – Paul McCartney marries Linda Eastman
Mar 20 – John & Yoko fly to Gibraltar, get married then fly
to Amsterdam for one week lie-in for peace
Mar 20 – James Earl Ray sentenced to 99 years for murder of Martin
Luther King Jr.
Apr – 543,000 US troops now in Vietnam
Apr 4 – Smothers Brothers tv show canceled because it is too controversial
Apr 9 – 300 Harvard students led by SDS seize Univ Hall and evict eight
Apr 10 – Police called into Harvard, 37 injured, 200 arrested
Apr 11 – Start of 3 day student strike at Harvard
Apr 22 – Harvard faculty votes to create black studies program &
give students vote in selection of its faculty
Apr 22 – City College of NY closed after black & Puerto Rican students
lock selves inside asking higher minority enrollment
Apr 23 – Sirhan Sirhan sentenced to death for murder of Bobby Kennedy
Apr 24 – U.S. B-52s launch biggest attack on North Vietnam. Protests
in 40 cities
May 15 – Hippies in People’s Park in Berkeley attacked by police and
July – Stephen Gaskin starts The Farm commune in Tennessee.
July 3 – Brian Jones of Rolling Stones dies
July 14 – Easy Rider premieres
July 20 – Men walk on the Moon
July 27 – Police raid on gay bar in Greenwich Village, NYC results
in Stonewall Uprising. 2000 protesters battle 400 police, start of Gay
Aug – Blind Faith forms, with Eric Clapton, Ginger Baker from Cream
and Steve Winwood from Traffic.
Aug 9 – Sharon Tate & LaBiancas found murdered by Charles Manson
August 15 – 17 WOODSTOCK Festival 500,000 people gathered for three
days of music and peace that changed the world
Aug 24 – Movie ‘Alice’s Restaurant released with Arlo Guthrie
Aug 26 – FBI reports 98% increase in marijuana arrests from 1966 –
Sept 3 – Ho Chi Min, leader of North Vietnam, dies
Sept 24 – Chicago Eight trial begins. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry
Rubin et. al charged with conspiracy to incite riots
Oct – Is Paul dead? Beatles controversy
Oct 8-11 – The Weatherman Days of Rage
Oct 15 – Peace Day. 500,000 protesters nationwide. First Vietnam Moratorium
Oct 21 – Jack Kerouac, beat author of On the Road dies.
Oct 30 – Supreme Court orders desegregation nationwide
Nov 15 – 500,000 + march in Wash. DC for peace. Largest antiwar rally
in U.S. history. Speakers: McCarthy, McGovern, Coretta King, Dick Gregory,
Leonard Bernstein. Singers: Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Peter, Paul, &
Mary, John Denver, Mitch Miller, touring cast of Hair
Nov 17 – First round of SALT talks in Helsinki
Nov 20 – 78 American Indians seize Alcatraz Island and demand its return
Nov 20 – DDT use banned in residential areas
Nov 24 – Lt. William Calley charged with murdering 102 So. Vietnamese
civilians at My Lai
Nov 25 – President Nixon orders all US germ warfare stockpiles destroyed
Dec – Over 100,000 US troops dead or injured in Vietnam.
Dec 1 – First draft lottery since W.W.II held in NYC
Dec 8 – Raid on Black Panther headquarters in LA – four hour shoot-out
Dec 24 – Rolling Stones Altamont concert erupts in violence, one
January 1 – Nixon signs National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Feb – Timothy Leary sentenced to 10 years for Texas/Mex marijuana bust
Feb 4 – Riot in Isla Vista, Calif. protesting Chicago verdicts
Feb 4 – President Nixon proposes environmental cleanup – EPA
Feb 18 – Chicago Seven acquitted of conspiracy charges
Feb 19 – Chicago Seven Trial verdict: Dellinger, Davis, Hayden, Hoffman,
& Rubin found guilty of crossing state lines to incite riot
Feb 19 – Explosions in 3 office buildings in NY; and in Calif; Wash;
Maryland; Mich, possibly done by the Weathermen
Feb 25 – Isla Vista Riots, Santa Barbara Bank of America bombed
Feb 26 – U.S. Army discontinues surveillance of civilian demonstrations
and files of demonstrators
Mar 6 – Three Weathermen blow themselves up in Greenwich Village, NY
Apr 1 – Cigarette advertising banned on radio and TV
Apr 7 – Referring to student unrest, Ronald Reagan, Gov. of Calif:
If it takes a bloodbath, let’s get it over with.
Apr 10 – Paul McCartney announces breakup of Beatles
Apr 22 – First Earth Day. Millions participate
Apr 30 – Nixon sends troops into Cambodia
May 4 – Four College Students Killed by National Guard at Kent State
May 5 – Nuclear nonproliferation treaty takes effect
May 8 – Construction workers attack antiwar demonstrators, Wall St.,
May 9 – 100,000 attend antiwar rally, Wash. D.C.
May 14 – Police kill two at Jackson State during violent student demonstrations
Jun 15 – Supreme Court OKs conscientious objector status on moral grounds
Jun 18 – U.S. voting age lowered to 18, now old enough to kill and
(see Mar 23, 1971?)
June 11 – Daniel Berrigan arrested by FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy
Sept 12 – Timothy Leary escapes prison (San Luis Obispo) with help
from the Weather Underground, joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.
Sept 18 – Jimi Hendrix dead at age 27
Oct 4 – Janis Joplin dies
Oct 13 – Angela Davis arrested on kidnapping, murder and conspiracy
Dec – Paul McCartney sues to dissolve Beatles.
Dec 2 – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) activated
Jan 7 – DDT use outlawed by U.S. Court of Appeals
Jan 12 – Rev. Philip Berrigan and 5 others indicted for conspiracy
to kidnap Henry Kissinger and bomb federal buildings
Jan 12 – Ralph Nader forms Earth Act group
Jan 25 – Charles Manson and followers found guilty of murder
Jan 25 – Supreme Court makes first decision against sexual discrimination
Mar 1 – Bomb explodes in Capitol men’s room. Weather Underground claims
responsibility in retaliation for the Laos decision
Mar 1 – U.S. stops licensing commercial whale hunters
Mar 8 – Supreme Court rules that objection to a particular war is not
sufficient grounds for conscientious objection
Mar 23 – Congress votes to lower voting age to 18
Mar 29 – Lt. Calley convicted for My Lai massacre
Mar 29 – Charles Manson, et al sentenced to death after
longest trial in Calif. history
Apr 19 – Over 1000 Veterans demonstrate against the Vietnam
war in Wash D.C., throwing their medals over the Capitol fence
Apr 20 – School busing upheld to end segregation by Supreme Court
Apr 23 – Vietnam veterans return medals and ribbons in antiwar protest
Apr 24 – Over 350,000 Veterans march in Wash D.C. and SF to protest
war in Vietnam
Apr 26 – 50,000 demonstrators in Washington D.C. set up Algonquin
May 3 – May Day antiwar protest, Wash. D.C.
May 11 – Indian occupation of Alcatraz ends after 19 months
Jun 13 – Pentagon Papers appear in NY Times
July 3 – Jim Morrison of The Doors dies in Paris
Nov – Nixon starts withdrawing troops from Vietnam.
Dec. – Greenpeace founded in Vancouver, Canada
Jan 25 – Shirley Chisholm first black woman to run for President
Feb – Life Magazine states: Today’s high school generation is interested
security, stability, & comfort.
Feb 24 – After 16 months in prison, Angela Davis is released
Mar – Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passes Congress
Mar 22 – 13-member National Commission on Marijuana & Drug Abuse
recommends legalization of marijuana
Mar 22 – Equal Rights Amendment prohibiting sex discrimination passes
Mar 30 – North Vietnamese launch massive attack. Troops go south through
the DMZ into South Vietnam, U.S. resumes bombing
Apr 10 – Biological Warfare Treaty signed by U.S. and 120 nations
Apr 15 – President Nixon & Canada P.M. Pierre Trudeau sign pact
to clean up Great Lakes
May 2 – FBI director J. Edgar Hoover Dies
May 9 – President Nixon orders mining of N. Vietnam’s ports
May 15 – Gov. George Wallace shot during primary campaign in Maryland
May 18 – Margaret Kuhn start Gray Panthers to protest discrimination
May 22 – Nixon makes first U.S. presidential trip to Moscow
May 26 – U.S. and USSR freeze nuclear weapons at current level
Jun 14 – EPA bans DDT in the USA
Jun 17 – Watergate Break-In
Jun 29 – Supreme Court rules state death penalties unconstitutional
– cruel and unusual punishment
July – First Rainbow Gathering in Colorado
July 1 – Gloria Steinem launches feminist magazine, Ms.
July 10 – Democratic Convention nominates George McGovern for president
of the United States
Aug 11 – Last U.S. military unit in Vietnam withdrawn
Aug 18 – Water Pollution Control Act passed by Congress over Nixon’s
Aug 21 – Republican National Convention nominates Nixon and Agnew again
Aug 23 – 1100 antiwar protest arrested outside Republican Nat’l Convention
Aug 28 – Consumer Product Safety Commision established
Sept 5 – Arabs kill Israeli athletes at Munich Olympics
Nov 13 – U.S. and 90 countries sign Int’l Oceanic Pollution pact
Dec 18 – Full scale bombing of N. Vietnam resumes
Jan 27 – Vietnam ceasefire agreement signed after 58,000 US casualties,
U.S. military draft ends
Jan 30 – McCord and Liddy found guilty of Watergate burglary &
Feb 28 – 250 American Indians (AIM) occupy Wounded Knee
Mar 29 – Last American troops withdrawn from Vietnam
Apr 16 – US bombs Laos
Apr 30 – Nixon accepts resignation of H.R. Haldeman & John Ehrlichman
& fires John Dean. Nixon denies knowledge of break-in or cover-up
July 20 – Senate subpoenas Watergate tapes
Aug 8 – Nixon Resigns amid Watergate scandal
Oct 10 – Spiro Agnew resigns
Oct 16 – Kissinger awarded Nobel Peace Prize
Oct 23 – Nixon Impeachment begins (note Aug 8!)
Nov – Congress passes Freedom of Information act.
Nov 7 – War Powers Act passed over Nixon’s veto – requires Congressional
approval for military actions over 60 days
Nov 9 – Six Watergate defendants sentenced
Feb 4 – Patty Hearst, 19, kidnapped by the SLA (Symbionese Liberation
Feb 12 – SLA demands that Randolph Hearst begin food distribution to
Apr 1 – Jane Fonda arrives in Vietnam on second visit
Apr 15 – Patricia Hearst participates in bank robbery with SLA members
May 17 – SLA shoot-out in LA
July 30 – Two articles of impeachment voted against President Nixon
Sept 4 – Nixon pardoned by President Ford
Sept 7 – CIA operation against Chile’s Marxist Govt. disclosed
Sept 16 – President Ford announces conditional pardon for draft evaders
Nov 21 – Freedom of Information Act passed over President Ford’s veto
Dec 21 – NY Times reports on CIA illegal domestic activities during
Apr 17 – Khmer Rouge takes over Cambodia
Apr 30 – Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese troops enter Saigon
Sept 18 – Patty Hearst caputured in SF
Nov 20 – CIA and FBI charged with illegal surveillance of US Citizens
and plotting to assassinate foreign leaders
Feb 12 – Production of Red Dye No. 2 banned
May 2 – 2000 members of Clamshell alliance occupy site of nuclear reactor
in Seabrook, NH, 1400 arrested
Jun 6 – Washington Post reports U.S. developing neutron bomb
Jun 15 – Tellico Dam project in Tennessee halted by snail darter per
Endangered Species Act
July 18 – American Indian Movement (AIM) leads march from Alcatraz
to Wash D.C. to protest legislation depriving Indian land rights
Feb 1 – Patty Hearst released from jail
Mar 28 – Three Mile Island Radiation Accident
Sept 23 – 200,000 in NYC for nuclear weapons protest
Dec 8 – John Lennon murdered outside his apartment entrance in NYC.
May 11 – Death of Bob Marley from brain cancer.
Apr 26 – Chernobyl Nuclear accident in Soviet Union.
Aug 9 – Jerry Garcia RIP 1995 @ 53
May 31 – Timothy Leary’s Dead or so it seems…
Apr 5 – Allen Ginsberg dies
Jan 5 – Sonny Bono dies in ski accident
Nov 30 – George Harrison Dead at 58
Posted by: skip
Believe in the magic of a young girl’s soul?
Believe in the magic of rock ‘n roll?
Believe in the magic that can set you free?
The Lovin’ Spoonful
to the greatest hits of the 60s on our RADIO
STATION while you browse!
you have a slower modem (33K-56K), check out THE
OLD HIPPIE’S CHOICE CUTS
To buy great music visit
Check out the Music Posters in our Hip
Visit these great Hippyland Pages!
Famous Hippy Quotes
– Our page of great quotes from the Beats
and hippies in music and literature.
Music With A Message
– The 40 most influential songs of the 60’s and early 70’s
To discuss music with other hippies go to our Music
|4 Way Site
– CSN&Y site
Match. Getting all your favorite music in one place has never
been easier or more fun! Music
Match’s Jukebox does it all! Best of all it’s FREE! Not only
does it manage all your MP3’s, but it actually records them! Just
pop in a music CD and choose which tracks to record. You’ll never
have to search for your music again! Using CDDB, it finds the title,
artist and names of all the tracks!
– our favorite MP3 site, lots of demo music from CDs. Groovy selection
and range of tunes. If you haven’t checked out the great quality
of MP3 music, now is the time. Now is the time to upgrade those computer
Fingers Page – with lots of MP3 music.
– lots more MP3 music!
Midi Center – download midi files of your favorite tunes
Music Store Great music from the 60’s & 70’s, plus jazz,
new age and techno!
Music – Great Prices on USED CDs and Videos
Imports– Over 500,000 import titles and collectibles!
– Tons of Classic Rock Posters, including Hendrix, Morrison, Dylan and
Thomas Records – Goth, Psychedelic, Punk and Anarchy music and videos.
– Excellent Selection of CDs! Use the Search Box to find what you’re lookin’
Internet Radio keeps improving!
New standards keep coming and the selection gets better all the time.
Check these out.
Old Hippie’s Choice Cuts – Great Oldies!
here for 33-56K modems.
– Oldies Rock from San Fran.
Street – Undergound music and requests a few hrs a week.
Steiermark – Austrian live radio station that plays top 40 oldies.
AMG – All Music
Guide – exellent resource for finding music info from any time period.
Good biographies and extensive hyplinks make it easy to navigate.
Old Stoned Hippie – Has a new CD with some real funny hippie tunes
Buddha – A satirical look at a FICTICIOUS college jam-band that attends
the mythical Hempsted College.
Trip – Retro Rock band from Oshkosh (!) playing covers from Black Sabbath
to Alanis Morrisette and their own up-to-date material! Their new
album is called Cowboys and Maniacs.
Road Records – Dan Simon’s The Hippy Chronicles
– Band from Ft. Collins, Colorado plays free form rock. Download
some of their MP3s and check ’em out.
& Cindy Christy – Their album Whirlwind Dance includes the tunes
Hippie Song and Marijuana Mountain. This is their page at MP3.com
where you can sample their music.
– VERY HIGH DOSE LSD MUSIC
– California band
– UK psychedelic Band
– English Band
Hop Y2K sing a long
Bass Pages – Everything about the Bass
– Music Webzine
Linen – The Magazine of Folk and World Music. Check out their
Gig Guide to concerts in North America.
Music Related Websites
The Rock and
Roll Hall of Fame
Connections in Rock Music – Good description of how the beat generation
All artwork and content copyright
©1999, Hip Inc
Posted by: skip
Hippies From A to Z – Skip Stone’s new book about the Hippie Movement!
The Way of the Hippie
– Find out what makes a person a hippie.
– Find out where hippies live and hang out and why.
– Important events of the 60’s and 70’s that influenced hippies and the world
Famous Hippy Quotes – Our page
of great quotes from the Beats and hippies in music and literature.
Music With A Message – The
40 most influential songs of the 60’s and early 70’s
– Learn what all those cool hippie words mean.
The Hippyland Hall of Fame
– Our readers voted for the most popular hippie activists, musicians, writers,
organizations and more.
Hippie Names –
A list of all those fun hippie names.
Flashback Forum –
Read stories about the old days.
Hippiedom – Links
to sites about Hippies
The 60s – Links to sites
about the 60s
Hippie Roots & The Perennial Subculture – Learn about the original European Hippies
Hippy Fashions and Lifestyles – Read about hippies impact on the world of fashion and discover their alternative lifestyles
A Trip Thru The ’60s – Find out what happened in the 1960s that changed the world!
Posted by: skip
The hippy culture is still alive and growing thanks to the internet. Here are some of our own pages and links to help you discover more about the hippy movement, the hippy lifestyle, and some of the people and events that made hippie history.
For Great Hippy Music, check out
To Buy books about Hippies go to HipMarket’s Bookstore!
Links to other sites about Hippies